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Top 10 web service exploits en 2020

 Apache Hadoop --> /ws/v1/cluster/apps/new-application

74.85% of all web services hits.
Apache Hadoop Unauthenticated Command Execution via YARN ResourceManager.

Hadoop is an open-source distributed processing framework designed to manage storage and data processing for big data applications running in clustered systems. In October 2018 Radware discovered the DemonBot, a malicious agent designed to run on vulnerable Hadoop servers. The original bot was first seen in Radware’s Threat Deception Network in September 2018 scanning and trying to execute the request to /ws/v1/cluster/apps/new-application, which is the first step to exploit exposed unprotected Hadoop server, today though rarely seen in the wild, its successors take first place in scanning attempts.

 Apache Tomcat --> /manager/html

11.27% of all web services hits.
Apache Tomcat Manager Application Upload Authenticated Code Execution
.

Apache Tomcat is an open-source HTTP web server written in Java under license Apache License 2.0. This module can be used to execute a payload on Apache Tomcat servers that have an exposed “manager” application. The payload is uploaded as a WAR archive containing a JSP application using a POST request against the /manager/html/upload component.

Cisco Routers --> /level/15/exec/-/sh/run/CR

6.9% of all web services hits.
Cisco routers without authentication on the HTTP interface.

Cisco Systems, Inc. develops, manufactures, and sells networking hardware, software telecommunications equipment, and other high-technology services and products. In Aug 2002 Cisco released Cisco IOS 11.2 for Cisco routers which offered a new HTTP interface that provided an HTTP 1.0-compliant Web server in the IOS. This HTTP server allowed a user to execute commands directly from a URL. Attackers keep trying to find the unprotected Cisco routers, those without authentication on the HTTP interface.

Sangoma FreePBX --> /admin/assets/js/views/login.js

1.56% of all web services hits.
Sangoma FreePBX – multiple vulnerabilities.

Sangoma FreePBX is a web-based open-source graphical user interface, GUI, that helps to install and configure an Asterisk-based (a voice over IP and telephony server) open-source phone system on a server or virtual environment. Starting in 2018, many requests for the resource /admin/assets/js/views/login.js were identified and captured in Radware’s Threat Deception Network. This resource belongs to Sangoma FreePBX code and it looks like the attackers are trying to detect vulnerable FreePBX servers and exploit one of the known vulnerabilities.

Wificam Webcam --> /ftptest.cgi?loginuse=&loginpas=

1.2% of all web services hits.
WIFICAM web camera – multiple vulnerabilities.

Many cheap Wireless IP web cameras use the same genetic code based on the GoAhead code (the tiny, embedded web server). This code includes multiple vulnerabilities where the most serious one is command injection.

In May 2017 an article was published about the Persirai botnet which exploits the vulnerabilities of these cameras to spread itself and launch high volumetric distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks.

 Sonatype Nexus --> /service/extdirect

0.92% of all web services hits.
Sonatype Nexus Repository Manager – Remote Code Execution
.

Nexus Repository Manager is an open-source Repository Manager that allows to a proxy collect and manage dependencies developed by Sonatype. In 2019-02-05, Sonatype Security Team released a Critical Security Advisory which covered CVE-2019-7238. Affected versions are Nexus Repository Manager 3.x OSS/Pro versions up to and including 3.14.0.

The vulnerability, CVE-2019-7238, allows a remote attacker to inject and execute code on the server that could potentially affect confidentiality, integrity, and availability by sending a specially crafted request to the Sonatype Nexus Repository Manager server. For further information see here.

 Apache Solr --> /solr/admin/info/system?wt=json

0.48% of all web services hits.
Apache Solr – Directory traversal vulnerability.

Apache Solr is an open-source enterprise search platform built on Apache Lucene. On May 30, 2013, Apache foundation published security issue SOLR-4882 with was related to CVE-2013-6397, the affected version was 4.3. The issue was resolved in version 4.6 and a patch from September 21, 2013.

PHPUnit --> /vendor/phpunit/phpunit/src/Util/PHP/eval-stdin.php

0.42% of all web services hits.
PHPUnit testing framework for PHP – Remote Code Execution.

PHPUnit is a programmer-oriented testing framework for PHP language. Like other unit testing frameworks, PHPUnit allows PHP developers to find mistakes in their newly committed code. In Jun 2017, CVE-2017-9841 that addresses the vulnerability was issued.

Hudson --> /hudson

0.4% of all web services hits.
Hudson continuous integration tool – multiple vulnerabilities.

Hudson is a continuous integration tool written in Java, which runs in a servlet container, such as Apache Tomcat or the GlassFish application server. Over the years the project was replaced by Jenkins. The final release. 3.3.3 was on February 15, 2016. Today Hudson is no longer maintained and was announced as obsolete in February 2017.

Otros

/ctrlt/DeviceUpgrade_1, /TP/public/index.php and /nice%20ports%2C/Tri%6Eity.txt%2ebak.


El Top 10 OWASP vulnerabilities en 2020 es:

  • Injection
  • Broken Authentication
  • Sensitive Data Exposure
  • XML External Entities (XXE)
  • Broken Access control
  • Security misconfigurations
  • Cross Site Scripting (XSS)
  • Insecure Deserialization
  • Using Components with known vulnerabilities
  • Insufficient logging and monitoring
Top 10 Web Application Security Risks 

  1. Injection. Injection flaws, such as SQL, NoSQL, OS, and LDAP injection, occur when untrusted data is sent to an interpreter as part of a command or query. The attacker’s hostile data can trick the interpreter into executing unintended commands or accessing data without proper authorization.
  2. Broken Authentication. Application functions related to authentication and session management are often implemented incorrectly, allowing attackers to compromise passwords, keys, or session tokens, or to exploit other implementation flaws to assume other users’ identities temporarily or permanently.
  3. Sensitive Data Exposure. Many web applications and APIs do not properly protect sensitive data, such as financial, healthcare, and PII. Attackers may steal or modify such weakly protected data to conduct credit card fraud, identity theft, or other crimes. Sensitive data may be compromised without extra protection, such as encryption at rest or in transit, and requires special precautions when exchanged with the browser.
  4. XML External Entities (XXE). Many older or poorly configured XML processors evaluate external entity references within XML documents. External entities can be used to disclose internal files using the file URI handler, internal file shares, internal port scanning, remote code execution, and denial of service attacks.
  5. Broken Access Control. Restrictions on what authenticated users are allowed to do are often not properly enforced. Attackers can exploit these flaws to access unauthorized functionality and/or data, such as access other users’ accounts, view sensitive files, modify other users’ data, change access rights, etc.
  6. Security Misconfiguration. Security misconfiguration is the most commonly seen issue. This is commonly a result of insecure default configurations, incomplete or ad hoc configurations, open cloud storage, misconfigured HTTP headers, and verbose error messages containing sensitive information. Not only must all operating systems, frameworks, libraries, and applications be securely configured, but they must be patched/upgraded in a timely fashion.
  7. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS). XSS flaws occur whenever an application includes untrusted data in a new web page without proper validation or escaping, or updates an existing web page with user-supplied data using a browser API that can create HTML or JavaScript. XSS allows attackers to execute scripts in the victim’s browser which can hijack user sessions, deface web sites, or redirect the user to malicious sites.
  8. Insecure Deserialization. Insecure deserialization often leads to remote code execution. Even if deserialization flaws do not result in remote code execution, they can be used to perform attacks, including replay attacks, injection attacks, and privilege escalation attacks.
  9. Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities. Components, such as libraries, frameworks, and other software modules, run with the same privileges as the application. If a vulnerable component is exploited, such an attack can facilitate serious data loss or server takeover. Applications and APIs using components with known vulnerabilities may undermine application defenses and enable various attacks and impacts.
  10. Insufficient Logging & Monitoring. Insufficient logging and monitoring, coupled with missing or ineffective integration with incident response, allows attackers to further attack systems, maintain persistence, pivot to more systems, and tamper, extract, or destroy data. Most breach studies show time to detect a breach is over 200 days, typically detected by external parties rather than internal processes or monitoring.
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